The Qing Dynasty Astronomical Bureau(Qintian Jian)was the institution ,which was responsible for the science of the Heavens and both scientific functions and nonscientific functions. Owing to its unique duty ,Qintian Jian ’ s management was different from other bureaus. The paper analyzed the situation of study of the Heavens science and pointed out the inevitable result of the developing circumstance and made a thorough inquiry the routine work management. When comparing Qintian Jian with the Ming Dynasty Astronomical bureau ,the author also discussed the management of officers who served in Qing Dynasty Qintian Jinan.
The Study of Management of the Qing Dynasty Astronomical Bureau( p. 54)